Opening remarks from event co-organizer Snowden Becker may be read here.

Organizers and participants will share outcomes from the meeting in a variety of professional forums in the coming months:

The Reel Thing Technical Symposium (Los Angeles, CA, 8/20/2016) – Snowden Becker summarized the recently completed OTRATT meeting and outcomes along with a case study of the Norman, OK Police Department’s data storage solution by OTRATT participant Blaine Davison.

Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) annual meeting (Pittsburgh, PA, 11/12/2016) – As part of the AV Content and Digital Preservation stream, Snowden Becker will present “Managing Bodycam Video: Challenges, Needs and New Approaches” along with representatives from the Pittsburgh Police bodycam program.

Law Enforcement Video Association (LEVA) Annual Training Conference (Scottsdale, AZ, 11/15/16) – Organizers will share the OTRATT final report and discuss future directions and collaborations with members of LEVA.

This is a preliminary bibliography of resources related to the On the Record, All the Time National Forum. These selected sources are organized according to the stakeholders involved in this project: Law Enforcement, Information Professionals, Vendors, Civil Liberties Organizations and Policy Makers. This list compiles whitepapers, policy documents, and scholarly literature from across these constituencies. The particular concerns and questions of each constituency—and particularly, the identification of concerns shared across multiple groups—will provide the initial ground for our National Forum discussions and programming and the agenda-setting process.

 

Law Enforcement

Reports, case studies and guidelines specific to body-worn camera technologies have proliferated with the increased attention to and implementation of body-worn camera initiatives in several police departments throughout the United States. Evidence management guidelines have likewise begun to reflect the increased prevalence of digital evidence alongside the familiar material and testimonial forms, and the unique storage and security needs of digital files. Professional organizations and academic-police department partnerships (including the Police Executive Research Forum) have assessed the effects and best practices of existing video recording programs, and made recommendations for future implementations. Central concerns include the optimization and efficacy of community-based policing practices, infrastructure and storage costs and cost-effectiveness, compliance and liability, community relationships and public perception, and accessibility and data security.

Ariel, B., Farrar, W., & Sutherland, A. (2015). The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Qualitative Journal of Criminology, 31(3), 509–535. (May require subscription)

Brown, J. (2015). Oakland Police Test Cloud Storage for Body Camera Video. Government Technology, February 26.

California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, & POST Management Counseling Services Bureau. (2013). Law Enforcement Evidence & Property Management Guide (Third Edition).

Katz, C., Choate, D., Ready, J., Nuno, L., Kurtenbach, M., & Johns on, K. (2014). Evaluating the Impact of Officer Body Worn Cameras in the Phoenix Police Department. Arizona State University and Phoenix Police Department.

Miller, L., Tolliver, J., & Police Executive Research Forum. (2014). Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned. Washington DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

 

Information Professionals

Three major professional communities are paying particularly close attention to changes in time- based media formats and evidentiary standards: Records management professionals, audio-visual archivists and data scientists. Core concerns of these and other information professionals include digital preservation, the longevity, preservation and appraisal of new evidentiary forms and formats, systems and parameters for electronic recordkeeping, and new possibilities for data resources processed computationally.

Besser, H. (2013). Archiving Aggregates of Individually Created Digital Content: Lessons from Archiving the Occupy Movement. Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture, 42(1), 31-37.  (May require subscription)

Goh, E. (2014). Clear skies or cloudy forecast? : Legal challenges in the management and acquisition of audiovisual materials in the cloud. Records Management Journal, 24(1), 56–73. (May require subscription)

Gottschalk, P. (2007). Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques. Idea Group Inc.

Jansen, A. (2010). Digital Records Forensics: Ensuring Authenticity and Trustworthiness of Evidence Over Time. In Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensic Engineering (SADFE), 2010 Fifth IEEE International Workshop on Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensic Engineering (pp. 84–88).

Mateescu, A., Rosenblat, A. & Boyd, D. (2015), Police Body-Worn Cameras, Data and Society Research Institute Working Paper, (February).

 

Vendors

With the growing interest in and implementation of police body-worn camera programs, manufacturers of those cameras have entered the media spotlight. The leading companies, Taser and Vievu, have seen massive growth and have developed interlocking services and products to maintain market share. Marketing materials from the vendor side often emphasize value in the form of protection for police officers and the neutrality and transparency of video evidence. Articles and reports about the growth of the industry abound, and are more likely to question the costs and impact (both social and financial) of these new technologies.

TASER, “The #1 On-Officer Video Platform” (retrieved September 15, 2015).

Vievu, “The LEe3 body worn camera used by over 4000 police agencies worldwide” (retrieved September 15, 2015).

Meyer, R. (2015, April 30). The Big Money in Police Body Cameras. The Atlantic.

Siegel, R., Kaste, M., Womack, M., Matson, G., & Ward, S. (2015). As Police Body Cameras Increase, What About All That Video? [Radio], NPR All Tech Considered (May 29).

 

Civil Liberties Groups

Civil Liberties groups have occupied a unique role in terms of police body-worn camera implementation and the rhetoric surrounding these programs. Some groups have been eager to call for widespread implementation as a way to achieve greater transparency in police/citizen interactions. However, many groups have also been concerned for some time with privacy and personal security issues related to new forms of (video) surveillance, as well as with the large quantities of data public agencies now need to manage, store and make accessible—or restrict. The literature here is broad, but below are some of the key constituencies that have made their calls for policy known and have significantly shaped public discussion.

Lynch, J., & Electronic Frontier Foundation. (2015). Letter from the Electronic Frontier Foundation to The United States Department of Justice, September 16.

Villagra, H. (2015). ACLU SoCal issues statement on LAPD’s policy on body worn video cameras. ACLU Southern California, April 24.

WITNESS. (n.d.) Activists’ Guide to Archiving Video. Retrieved August 10, 2014.

Marshall, A. (n. d.) “Policy bodycam videos: The Wild West of open records request.” Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press.

 

Policy Makers

The evolving policies related to body-worn cameras in law enforcement reflect many of the overlapping challenges of managing, accessing and preserving video evidence. Compliance with evidentiary standards at all levels of government and across institutions requires coordination and clear policy development with respect to data retention and evidence gathering. The new technological affordances of digital video and personal recording devices demand new approaches to policing as a practice, as well as to open government initiatives and privacy policies.

Fan, M. D. (2016). Privacy, Public Disclosure, Police Body Cameras.  Ala. L. Rev. 

Fan M. D. (2016). Justice Visualized: Courts and the Body Camera Revolution.  UC Davis L. Rev.

Heaton, B. (2015). Body-Worn Camera Legislation Spikes in State Legislatures. Government Technology, June 1st.

President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Washington D.C. : Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2015). Guiding Principles on Cloud Computing in Law Enforcement.

International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2014). Model Policy & Body-Worn Cameras: Concepts and Issues Paper. IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center.